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About measles and rubella

Final update date March 11, 2019

◎ To medical institutions
Notification method of wind shin changed from January 1, 2018! (Click the figure to open the PDF file.)

About how to report wind shin(PDF: 225KB)

If a doctor diagnoses measles or rubella, it will notify the nearest public health center within 24 hours based on the Act on the Prevention of Infectious Diseases and Medical Care for Patients with Infectious Diseases.
In addition, if a patient suspected of measles or rubella is consulted without a diagnosis, they will be required to report it to the public health center immediately.
If there is a notification, etc., we will promptly investigate to prevent the spread of infection.

Please refer to flow figure of following link for flow of report and contact information of each ward Health and Welfare Center and contact information of each ward.
※ About conduct of measles, rubella examination diagnosis in Yokohama-shi (flow) <January, 2018 revised edition> (PDF: 260KB)

◎ Beware of the trend overseas.

From July to August 2016, there were multiple measles cases at offices in Chiba Prefecture and Kansai International Airport in Osaka Prefecture.
Overseas, measles epidemics continue in Southeast Asia and Europe.
Since January 2017, people who have traveled to Southeast Asia have developed measles after returning to Japan, and people who have come into contact with the patient have developed symptoms in Japan.

Measles is transmitted by air, droplet and contact infections, and the following symptoms appear.
If you have any suspicious symptoms, be sure to call a medical institution in advance and wear a mask to see your doctor.

<Symptoms of measles>
1.Heat fever of 38 ° C or higher
2.Cough, nasal discharge, conjunctival hyperemia
3.Red rash of whole body
※If all 1-3 appear, measles is suspected.
※In particular, those who have traveled abroad need to be careful.

◎ March 27, 2015 Measles exclusion country recognition!

Japan has been recognized as a "measles-free country" by the World Health Organization West Pacific Secretariat.
However, measles has not disappeared at all, and imports from overseas have been seen, and there have been reports in Yokohama. (For details on the number of outbreaks, see "All Number Information (San-5 Class Infectious Diseases)" of Yokohama City Infectious Disease Occurrence Status.)
Measles is an infection caused by the measles virus.
It is very infectious and almost 100% of people who do not have immunity become infected. It can develop severe complications and can be life-threatening.
Even if it is excluded in Japan, it is not known when the measles virus will be brought in from overseas. It is important that each person has immunity.
Measles is not a disease of the past! Let's get a vaccination to prevent measles! !

It is highly infectious and almost 100% of people without antibodies become infected. There is no special treatment, and hospitalization may be required even if there is no complications.

  • Measles is an infection caused by the measles virus. When infected, after an incubation period of about 10 to 12 days, symptoms such as fever, cough, and runny nose appear. A few days later, a high fever of 38 ° C or higher and a red rash of the whole body appear. Before and after the onset of the rash, white spots (coprick spots) may appear inside the cheek.
  • Without complications, the main symptoms almost recover in 7 to 10 days, but the rash remains brown for a while.
  • It is said that measles temporarily reduces immunity and takes about one month to recover, during which time care must be taken not to suffer from other infectious diseases.

It is transmitted by droplet infection, airborne infection, and contact infection.

  • Infection (splash infection and air infection) is caused by inhaling air containing measles virus, such as coughing and sneezing. It can also cause contact infection.
  • If people around you do not have measles immunity, it is said that 12 to 14 patients (1 or 2 people with influenza) will be infected from one patient. When a person without immunity is infected, it develops almost 100%.
  • It has the power to infect people around you from one day before symptoms such as fever and cough appear (3-5 days before the onset of rash) to about 4 to 5 days after the appearance of rash (or 3 days after fever).

Combined complications can sometimes be life-threatening. Complications are said to be about 30% of the total. Of these, pneumonia and encephalitis are a major cause of measles death.

  • Pneumonia…It accounts for about half of complications, including pneumonia caused by the measles virus and pneumonia caused by bacteria.
  • encephalitis…It merges with 0.5 to 1 in about 1,000 patients. Approximately 60% recovers completely, but 20-40% retains the aftereffects of the central nervous system, and the mortality rate is said to be about 15%.
  • subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)…It is very rare (1 in 100,000), but it occurs about 7 to 10 years after measles. Intellectual disorders and motor disorders gradually progress, resulting in death within an average of 6 to 9 months after onset.
  • In addition, otitis media (about 5 to 15%), cruise syndrome (thryngeal inflammation / pharyngeal bronchitis), myocarditis, etc. may be complicated.

- Measure your body temperature every day for two weeks (up to three weeks) from the last contact with a measles patient and observe your health. In the unlikely event that symptoms such as measles appear, contact the medical institution in advance and follow the instructions of the medical institution.

  • Before consulting, tell the medical institution the symptoms by telephone or other means.
    "● Moon ● I have a fever from the day, and from the day, a collision came out throughout my body." etc.
  • He talks about contact with a measles patient.
    "I came into contact with a measles patient on the day of the month." etc.
  • Check with the medical institution how to consult.
    "When and where should I go to the hospital?" etc.

※ You may be infected with your family or other patients when you visit a hospital.
Please pay attention to the above precautions, wear a mask and consult a hospital.

- Recently, various cases have been required to be vaccinated.

  • When going to university, participating in club activities, traveling abroad, etc., it is often required to be vaccinated or to prove that measles antibodies (resistance) are sufficient. It has become. In particular, if you are going to an overseas school, you will need to confirm that you have been vaccinated twice in Vaccinations Prefecture.
  • A blood test (antibody titer test) to check if you have measles antibodies can be taken at a medical institution (own expense).
  • Persons with weak immunity, such as medical care, welfare, education, and childcare, or those who often work in contact with children, are required to be vaccinated so that they do not spread measles as a source of infection. You. In some companies, there are places where you can check your Vaccinations history when they find a job.

- This happens when a measles patient occurs. It is important to prevent it from getting measles.

  • There were measles patients at school, but when events (graduation ceremony, school trip, etc.) were held as scheduled, some people had measles.
  • When one person had measles, the family developed symptoms one after another.

※ Measles is very infectious and can cause a large number of infected people from only one patient.
Vaccinations can prevent infection, onset and severity.

  • He found that he had measles while traveling abroad, and was isolated from a local hospital. People who went to the hospital with them were also isolated. In addition, all people suspected of contacting the patient received a blood test to see if they had measles antibodies. As a result, the return to Japan has been postponed.

※ There is still a measles endemic area overseas.
It is necessary to check the infectious disease epidemic information at the destination and to check for vaccinations or measles antibodies before traveling.

The stormy wind shin did not completely stop the epidemic!

What is the wind shin?

It is an infectious disease caused by the rubella virus characterized by fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy. After an incubation period of about 14 to 21 days (average 16 to 18 days), symptoms appear.

Basically, it is a good prognosis, but hospitalization may be required due to complications such as joint pain / arthritis, thrombocytopenic purpura and acute encephalitis.

When a pregnant woman becomes infected with the rubella virus in the first half of pregnancy, the fetus is also infected, and the disability that occurs in the offspring is called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).
Cataracts, heart disease, hearing loss (3 main symptoms) are seen.

  • In the case of rubella, even if an adult is infected by about 15%, there is an subclinical infection that does not show subjective symptoms, so CRS may occur even if the mother is asymptomatic during pregnancy.
  • Babies with congenital rubella syndrome may continue to emit rubella virus to the pharynx and urine for a long time (more than one year) after birth. Care must be taken as a source of infection.

Vaccinations can immunize against measles and rubella.
Those who fall under the following can receive free vaccinations as routine vaccinations.
Check your age and vaccination period and get a vaccination.

  • (Phase 1) As soon as you become one year old, get a measles and rubella mixed (MR) vaccine.
  • (Phase 2) Please receive the second vaccination within one year before entering elementary school.

For more information, please visit Vaccinations's details.

Yokohama City Initiatives

Yokohama City is making various efforts to eradicate measles and rubella.

For past test results, see Pathogen Information.

Achieved the elimination of measles in 2015! !

In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare formulated the “Guidelines for Preventing Specific Infectious Diseases Related to Measles” and strengthened measures against measles. (Reference: Press release materials (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) (outside site)
In 2013, Yokohama City revised the Yokohama City Measles Elimination Strategy (PDF: 379KB) and implemented measures to eliminate measles. In the future, we will maintain the condition of measles elimination.

To get rid of wind shin in 2020! !

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare enacted the “Guidelines for Prevention of Specific Infectious Diseases Related to Rubella” in April 2014, with the goal of eliminating rubella by 2020.
In response to this, Yokohama City will also formulate the “Yokohama City Wind Shin Elimination Strategy” (PDF: 514KB) and strengthen measures for wind shin elimination.

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Inquiries to this page

Health and Social Welfare Bureau Health and Safety Department Health and Safety Division

Telephone: 045-671-2463

Telephone: 045-671-2463

Fax: 045-664-7296

Email address: [email protected]

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