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Let's prevent heat stroke (heat stroke, sunstroke)

Last update date July 18, 2019

What is heat stroke?

"Eagerness" of "heat stroke" is not to get absorbed in things and means middle (ata) rukotoo for heat. We mean that we come to feel sick at body by contacting with "(ata) ru" here. "(yuata) ri is how to use that is similar to "poisoning" and saying one in poisonous, body getting sick under hot water" in eating, and using for hot water, and body getting sick under "meal in coming to feel sick at body (shokuata) ri". Therefore "eagerness" of "heat stroke" means that we come to feel sick at body by contacting with heat. Therefore heat stroke is physical abnormality caused by high temperature environment.
Main model that may be seen for this heat stroke of illness is heat cramps (fall asleep and do not put), heat exhaustion (heat consumption), heat stroke (febrile fever).

About heat cramps (fall asleep and do not put)

Sweat becomes popular if hot. When water evaporates, we take evaporation heat away from the human body, and sweat which came out to the surface of the human body is useful for lowering temperature. It is principle same as cooling down on hot day when we sprinkle garden. However, ingredient of sweat is not only water. It is salty when we have sweat. Sodium or magnesium are included in sweat. Not only moisture but also sodium or magnesium may be short in the body when they perspire in large quantities. For lack of sodium, jerk may rise and is mainly called heat cramps (fall asleep and do not put). When we perspire by campaign for marathon in large quantities even if it is not hot environment, heat cramps (fall asleep and do not put) may be caused.
When it perspires in large quantities, for the prevention of heat cramps (heat cramps), it is important to take in sodium with moisture. You may dissolve around 0.1-0.2% of salt (sodium chloride) in tea or water and will drink.
In addition, heat cramps (fall asleep and do not put) are different from febrile convulsion (nesseikeiren) that infants may have at the time of sudden fever.

About heat exhaustion (heat consumption)

Blood has role to carry heat in body. We drift to the blood vessel, and blood circulates through whole body. Heat is made with muscle or the internal organs of physical deep part mainly. When we go along blood vessel running through muscle or the internal organs of physical deep part, blood absorbs heat, and blood releases heat when we go along blood vessel (dermovascular) drifting to skin, and heat is released in outside the body by skin. When temperature rises highly for hot environment, physical structure which skin blood vessel expands, and blood goes, and by becoming cheap, increases quantity of blood going along skin blood vessel, and increases release to outside the body of heat, and is going to lower temperature works. On the other hand, when we perspire for heat or exercise in large quantities, moisture is lost, and it is dewatering state from the body, and blood volume (circulation blood volume) to circulate through whole body decreases. Expansion of skin blood vessel and decrease in circulation blood volume cause drop of blood pressure, and they become heat exhaustion (heat consumption: heat exhaustion) that dizziness, headache, feeling of weakness are seen in. We may faint and are called heat faint (heat syncope). It becomes shock state when we turn worse and may be life-threatening.
For the prevention of heat exhaustion (heat consumption), we avoid hot environment and are to consume water well. You may dissolve around 0.1-0.2% of salt (sodium chloride) in tea or water and, about moisture, will drink for the prevention of heat cramps.

About heat stroke

Temperature is easy to rise in hot environment, but physical structure which is going to lower temperature by expansion of sweat and skin blood vessel works. However, physical mechanism which is going to lower temperature does not work and may run a fever and is with febrile fever. We do not perspire, and temperature may rise more than 39.4 degrees during 10-15 minutes. Skin is red and dries hot. For febrile fever, temperature may reach high temperature of 41-43 degrees. Heat stroke (heat stroke) means case that febrile fever is caused in hot environment, and disturbance of consciousness is seen in. We produce abnormality for function of various organs when we turn worse for heat stroke and may be life-threatening.
In addition, angry heat stroke may be called sunstroke by taking direct rays of the sun.
Heat stroke is seriously ill model of heat stroke. Prophylaxis of heat cramps (fall asleep and do not put) and heat exhaustion (heat consumption) is prophylaxis of heat stroke. In addition, thing corresponding to urgency is important without leaving unattended when heat cramps, heat exhaustion was seen. For the prevention of heat stroke, we avoid hot environment and are to consume water well. You may dissolve around 0.1-0.2% of salt (sodium chloride) in tea or water and, about moisture, will drink for the prevention of heat cramps.

It is ... for the prevention of heat stroke

  1. Sunlight is strong in Japan, and there is much outbreak of heat stroke in July with high temperature, August, too. Activity in the open air when sunlight is strongly high in temperature needs, particularly attention. Among 1st, there is much outbreak between 2:00 p.m. and 5:00. Temperature is high, and, in this time, it is thought that dewatering advances by activity under previous hot weather, and fatigue accumulates. When sunlight is strongly high in temperature, let's refrain from activities in the open air as much as possible. Sunlight will do activity in the open air in morning, evening when temperature lowers weakly. For example, let's be limited by 7:00 a.m. from 4:00 a.m. when temperature is the lowest during one day. It will prevent it from bathing in direct rays of the sun by staying in shadow using hat or parasol, parasol as much as possible outdoors. We sometimes take off hat, and let's promote evaporation of sweat. When it moves into action under the hot weather outdoors, we prepare for cool place that does not catch direct rays of the sun and will sometimes take there a break. It is helpful for the prevention of adverse effects to health to take too much, and to stop by of ultraviolet ray to avoid direct rays of the sun. Please refer to our Yokohama City Inst. of Health homepage for "ultraviolet ray and skin, eyes".
  2. By sweating, moisture and salt are lost by the body. When we sweat, let's take in moisture and salt. You may dissolve around 0.1-0.2% of salt (sodium chloride) in tea or water and, for the prevention of heat cramps, will drink. But person whom moisture restrictions and sodium restriction are ordered to by doctor, please talk about intake of moisture and salt with doctor beforehand. In addition, it is not desirable as beer and drink including caffeine increase volume of urine, and they may further become dewatering state. It is diarrhea by drinking drink containing a large quantity of sugar including 100% fruit juice in large quantities; about "fruit juice (fruit juice) and diarrhea" that are not more desirable for dewatering state as it may be reference). In addition, let's wait as very cold drink may have abdominal pain and diarrhea by drinking in large quantities.
  3. There is few and is light, and let's make thing to wear a one that we are not hard with bright color. We are full of breathability, and thing which is easy to evade heat is good. Heat of the chest becomes hard to fall out when we tighten with collar (collar) and tie about neckwear, and discomfort is strengthened. About neckwear, let's loosen for ventilation if possible. We cannot hold for the prevention of heat stroke, and, for prevention of global warming, "COOL BIZ" (Cool Biz) is helpful.
  4. When we move into action in hot environment, let's stop giving all energy from the beginning. We begin slowly, and let's gradually give level. When we feel shortness of breath or drift, we stop activity promptly, and let's take a rest at cool place.
  5. Let's stop leaving infants and pet in car which parked (please click underline part)。 Temperature in car rises by strong sunlight, and there is the death example for heat stroke, too.
  6. As it is hard to feel drought in comparison with young people about elderly person, and temperature control function decreases, you should consume water diligently. As there is much outbreak of heat stroke in home, about elderly person, we take in moisture before sleeping for the prevention of dewatering state during sleep, and let's leave drinking water by pillow. In addition, short time is recommended to hot sundown bath with lukewarm hot water as we perspire abundantly, and long bath with hot water is easy to become dewatering state.
  7. For heat stroke, thing thought that symptom is light first rapidly turns worse and may become seriously ill. When symptom of heat stroke is seen, there is person of attendant, and let's have a medical examination to medical institution immediately. Particularly, let's call ambulance immediately when consciousness is in a haze and is not unconscious.

The outbreak situation (from May to September in 2007) of heat stroke in Yokohama-shi

Patients with heat stroke conveyed by ambulance were 398 people in total in Yokohama-shi between May 1, 2007 and September 30. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy was street of table 1 below.
While 79 people (19.8%), home (living room) walked 75 (18.8%) 108 people (27.1%), exercise average outwork average in the main scene, 35 (8.8%), place where the public went in and out of were 24 (6.0%) 59 (14.8%), the whole indoor work at road and parking lot.
There was much outbreak during outwork at 19 years or older. There was much exercising outbreak at 7-18 years old. There was much outbreak at home (living room) at 65 years or older. There was much outbreak at road and parking lot at 65 years or older during walk, too. There was much outbreak during indoor work at 19-64 years old. Outbreak at public place to go in and out of was seen in all age groups.
In addition, as for the number of the patients with monthly heat stroke generating, there were many 27 (6.8%) and outbreak in August 324 (81.4%), September 29 (7.3%), August 17 (4.3%), July one (0.3%), June May.

Table 1. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age group in Yokohama-shi (from May to September in 2007)
 0-6 years old7-18 years old19-39 years old40-64 years old65 years or olderTotal
Under outwork02335716108
Under exercise043227779
At home (living room)00876075
Road, parking lot during walk0211113559
Under indoor work021913135
Public place to go in and out of1496424
The outdoors020147
Park, open space000235
The inside of car102025
School010001
Total256104104132398

The outbreak situation (from May to September in 2008) of heat stroke in Yokohama-shi

Patients with heat stroke conveyed by ambulance were 346 people in total in Yokohama-shi between May 1, 2008 and September 30. There were fewer 52 people than the same period of 2007. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy was street of table 2 below.
In the main scene, home (living room) was road and parking lot during 84 people (24.3%), walk, and 25 (8.8%), the whole exercise were 21 (6.1%) 36 (10.4%), the whole indoor work 57 people (16.5%), the whole outwork 36 (10.4%), school 42 (12.1%), place where the public went in and out of.
There was much outbreak at home (living room) at 65 years or older. There was much outbreak at road and parking lot at 65 years or older during walk, too. There was much outbreak of indoor work average and outwork average at 19-64 years old. There was much exercising outbreak at 7-18 years old. There was much outbreak at school at 7-18 years old, too.
In addition, as for the number of the patients with monthly heat stroke generating, there was much outbreak in August in 14 (4.0%) and July 165 (47.7%), September 158 (45.7%), August three (0.9%), July six people (1.7%), June May.

Table 2. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy in Yokohama-shi (from May to September in 2008)
 0-6 years old7-18 years old19-39 years old40-64 years old65 years or olderTotal
At home (living room)1811145084
Road, parking lot during walk139172757
Under outwork001425342
Public place to go in and out of0210101436
School02493036
Under indoor work01714325
Under exercise0963321
The outdoors0035513
Park, open space040329
Others, ignorance01117423
Total25280101111346

The outbreak situation (from May to September in 2009) of heat stroke in Yokohama-shi

Patients with heat stroke conveyed by ambulance were 170 people in total in Yokohama-shi between May 1, 2009 and September 30. There were fewer 176 people than the same period of 2008 and was reduced to half. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy was street of table 3 below.
In the main scene, home (living room) was road and parking lot during 40 people (23.5%), walk, and 14 (8.2%), the whole indoor work were ten (5.9%) 22 (12.9%), the whole exercise 27 (15.9%), the whole outwork 15 (8.8%), school 30 people (17.6%), place where the public went in and out of.
There was much outbreak at home (living room) at 65 years or older. There was much outbreak at road and parking lot at 65 years or older during walk, too. There was much outbreak of indoor work average and outwork average at 19-64 years old. There was much exercising outbreak at 7-39 years old. There was much outbreak at school at 7-18 years old.
In addition, as for the number of the patients with monthly heat stroke generating, there was much outbreak in August in 13 (7.6%) and July 83 (48.8%), September 54 (31.8%), August 18 (10.6%), July two people (1.2%), June May.

Table 3. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy in Yokohama-shi (from May to September in 2009)
 0-6 years old7-18 years old19-39 years old40-64 years old65 years or olderTotal
At home (living room)318101840
Road, parking lot during walk02791230
Public place to go in and out of15105627
Under outwork001012022
Under exercise1652115
School01220014
Under indoor work0064010
Park, open space221005
The outdoors001012
Others, ignorance002215
Total728524439170

The outbreak situation (from May to September in 2010) of heat stroke in Yokohama-shi

Patients with heat stroke conveyed by ambulance were 932 people in total in Yokohama-shi between May 1, 2010 and September 30. There was much outbreak of heat stroke patient who cried in 2.3 times and usual for the same period in 2007 when there were many 5.5 times of the same period of 2009, outbreak of patients with heat stroke. It is thought with influence of intense heat that usual does not have. Change of 2,001-2,010 years (2001-2010) of the heat stroke number of patients conveyed by ambulance is street of lower graph in Yokohama-shi between May 1 and September 30.

Graph of heat stroke number of patients change in Yokohama-shi of 2,001-2,010 years


The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy was street of table 4 below.
In the main scene, 89 (9.5%), school, kindergarten, others were 34 (3.6%) 107 people (11.5%), public place to go in and out of 143 people (15.3%), exercise average 231 people (24.8%), road 304 people (32.6%), workshop house.
There was much outbreak in house at 65 years or older. There was much outbreak on road at 65 years or older during walk, too. There was much outbreak at workshop at 19-64 years old. There was much exercising outbreak at 7-39 years old. There was much outbreak at school at 7-18 years old.
In addition, as for the number of the patients with monthly heat stroke generating, there was much outbreak in September in August in 123 (13.2%) and July 468 (50.2%), September 322 (34.5%), August 16 (1.7%), July three people (0.3%), June May.

Table 4. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy in Yokohama-shi (from May to September in 2010)
 0-6 years old7-18 years old19-39 years old40-64 years old65 years or olderTotal
House173154211304
Workshop008911527231
Road19233971143
Under exercise15132176107
Public place to go in and out of1721253589
School, kindergarten, others01785434
Elderly person facility000088
The outdoors021238
Parking lot, bicycle parking lots, garage001427
The inside of car100001
Total593206261367932

The outbreak situation (from May to September in 2011) of heat stroke in Yokohama-shi

Patients with heat stroke conveyed by ambulance were 854 people in total in Yokohama-shi between May 1, 2011 (Heisei 23) and September 30. There were many 557 men (65.2%), woman 297 (34.8%) and men. Outbreak of patients with heat stroke decreased a little in comparison with 2010 (Heisei 22), but there was more than most, usual next to 2010 (Heisei 22) in 2,001-2,011 years (2001-2011). Influence that air conditioner was able to refrain from is thought about by power saving. Change of 2,001-2,011 years (2001-2011) of the heat stroke number of patients conveyed by ambulance is street of lower graph in Yokohama-shi between May 1 and September 30.

Graph of heat stroke number of patients change in Yokohama-shi of 2,001-2,011 years


The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy was street of table 5 below.
In the main scene, 89 people (10.4%), road, parking lot were 87 (10.2%) 135 people (15.8%), public place to go in and out of 253 people (29.6%), exercise average 271 people (31.7%), house workshop.
There was much outbreak in house at 65 years or older. There was much outbreak at road, parking lot at 65 years or older, too. There was much outbreak the outdoors at 65 years or older, too. There was much outbreak at workshop at 19-64 years old. There was much outbreak in the car at 19-64 years old, too. There was much exercising outbreak at 7-39 years old. There was much outbreak in school, kindergarten at 0-18 years old.
In addition, as for the number of the patients with monthly heat stroke generating, there was much outbreak in September in August in July in 80 (9.4%) and June 400 (46.8%), September 276 (32.3%), August 92 (10.8%), July six people (0.7%), June May.

Table 5. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy in Yokohama-shi (from May to September in 2011)
 0-6 years old7-18 years old19-39 years old40-64 years old65 years or olderTotal
Workshop0310812238271
House232539184253
Under exercise173361510135
Public place to go in and out of41832201589
Road, parking lot0911165187
The inside of car006208
The outdoors010056
School, kindergarten220004
Others, ignorance000101
Total9109218215303854

The outbreak situation (from May to September in 2012) of heat stroke in Yokohama-shi

Patients with heat stroke conveyed by ambulance were 653 people in total in Yokohama-shi between May 1, 2012 (Heisei 24) and September 30. There were many 452 men (69.2%), woman 201 (30.8%) and men. The heat stroke number of patients decreased by 201 in total in comparison with the same period of 2011 (Heisei 23), but there was more than most, usual next to 2010 (Heisei 22), 2011 (Heisei 23) in 2,001-2,012 years (2001-2012). Influence that air conditioner was able to refrain from is thought about by power saving. Change of 2,001-2,012 years (2001-2012) of the heat stroke number of patients conveyed by ambulance is street of lower graph in Yokohama-shi between May 1 and September 30.

Graph of heat stroke number of patients change in Yokohama-shi of 2,001-2,012 years


The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy was street of table 6 below.
In the main scene, 78 people (11.9%), place where the public went in and out of were 59 (9.0%) 113 people (17.3%), road, parking lot 155 people (23.7%), exercise average 211 people (32.3%), work average house (we include old man facility).
There was much outbreak in house (we include old man facility) at 65 years or older. There was much outbreak at road, parking lot at 65 years or older, too. There was much outbreak during work at 19-64 years old. There was much exercising outbreak at 7-39 years old.
In addition, as for the number of the patients with monthly heat stroke generating, there was much outbreak in September in August in 60 (9.2%) and July 300 (45.9%), September 273 (41.8%), August 15 (2.3%), July five people (0.8%), June May.

Table 6. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy in Yokohama-shi (from May to September in 2012)
 0-6 years old7-18 years old19-39 years old40-64 years old65 years or olderTotal
House (we include old man facility)271328161211
In operation07626224155
Under exercise1781897113
Road, parking lot056214678
Public place to go in and out of3814181659
School, kindergarten132028
Others, ignorance22471429
Total9110119145270653

The outbreak situation (from May to September in 2013) of heat stroke in Yokohama-shi

Patients with heat stroke conveyed by ambulance were 1,072 people in total in Yokohama-shi between May 1, 2013 (Heisei 25) and September 30. There were many 713 men (66.5%), woman 359 (33.5%) and men. There was the most annual heat stroke number of patients in 2,001-2,013 years (2001-2013). Change of 2,001-2,013 years (2001-2013) of the heat stroke number of patients conveyed by ambulance is street of lower graph in Yokohama-shi between May 1 and September 30.

Graph of heat stroke number of patients change in Yokohama-shi of 2,001-2,013 years


The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy was street of table 7 below.
In the main scene, 101 (9.4%), school were 68 (6.3%) 128 people (11.9%), the whole exercise 175 people (16.3%), public place to go in and out of 181 people (16.9%), work average 417 people (38.9%), road, parking lot house (we include old man facility).
There was much outbreak in house (we include old man facility) at 65 years or older. There was much outbreak at road, parking lot at 65 years or older, too. There was much outbreak during work at 19-64 years old. There was much exercising outbreak at 7-64 years old.
In addition, as for the number of the patients with monthly heat stroke generating, there was much outbreak in August in 72 (6.7%) and July 514 (47.9%), September 447 (41.7%), August 30 (2.8%), July nine people (0.8%), June May.

Table 7. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy in Yokohama-shi (from May to September in 2013)
 0-6 years old7-18 years old19-39 years old40-64 years old65 years or olderTotal
House (we include old man facility)1104376287417
Road, parking lot213295582181
In operation04727623175
Public place to go in and out of211423241128
Under exercise06119156101
School, kindergarten15591268
Others, ignorance001102
Total61542152564411072

The outbreak situation (from May to September in 2014) of heat stroke in Yokohama-shi

Patients with heat stroke conveyed by ambulance were 651 people in total in Yokohama-shi between May 1, 2014 (Heisei 26) and September 30. There were many 452 men (69.4%), woman 199 (30.6%) and men. The annual heat stroke number of patients decreased by 421 in comparison with 2013 (1,072) of the previous year when it was the most a lot in 2,001-2,014 years (2001-2014), but, as for the increase and decrease, there are hardly none in comparison with (2012: 653) in the former previous year (2 personnel cut). Change of 2,001-2,014 years (2001-2014) of the heat stroke number of patients conveyed by ambulance is street of lower graph in Yokohama-shi between May 1 and September 30.

Graph of heat stroke number of patients change in Yokohama-shi of 2,001-2,014 years


The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy was street of table 8 below.
In the main scene, 75 (11.5%), school were five (0.8%) 79 (12.1%), road, parking lot 130 people (20.0%), public place to go in and out of 173 people (26.6%), exercise average 178 people (27.3%), work average house (we include old man facility).
There was much outbreak in house (we include old man facility) at 65 years or older. There was much outbreak at road, parking lot at 65 years or older, too. There was much outbreak during work at 19-64 years old. There was much exercising outbreak at 7-64 years old.
In addition, as for the number of the patients with monthly heat stroke generating, there was much outbreak in August in 18 (2.8%) and July 268 (41.2%), September 302 (46.4%), August 52 (8.0%), July 11 people (1.7%), June May.

Table 8. The number of the patients with heat stroke generating according to the scene according to age hierarchy in Yokohama-shi (from May to September in 2014)
 0-6 years old7-18 years old19-39 years old40-64 years old65 years or olderTotal
House (we include old man facility)221330131178
In operation01657928173
Under exercise18820138130
Public place to go in and out of2812263179
Road, parking lot0611144475
School, kindergarten030025
Others, ignorance3122311
Total8109123164247651

The patients with national heat stroke generating situation

We can see secular variation of the conveyance number of people of week about the patients with national heat stroke first aid conveyance situation. Please see our Yokohama City Inst. of Health homepage "patients with national heat stroke generating situation".

"Heat stroke prevention information" in each places of the whole country

Ministry of the Environment heat stroke prevention information site is site providing heat index (WBGT: wet-bulb blackball temperature), patients with heat stroke breaking news, heat stroke related information including knowledge about coping method to heat stroke for the purpose of promoting attention for heat stroke. As heat index in each places of the whole country, patients with heat stroke breaking news are shown, please refer to.

Reference

July 23, 2004 first publication
The August 31, 2006 enlargement
The July 28, 2008 enlargement
Revision supplementary on June 17, 2009
The July 27, 2010 enlargement
Revision supplementary on August 5, 2011
Revision supplementary on May 21, 2012
Revision supplementary on July 17, 2013
Revision supplementary on July 15, 2015
Revision supplementary on August 9, 2018
Revision supplementary on July 5, 2019

Inquiry to this page

Health and Social Welfare Bureau institute for health infectious disease, epidemiology Information Systems Section

Telephone: 045-370-9237

Telephone: 045-370-9237

Fax: 045-370-8462

E-Mail address [email protected]

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