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Term explanation in food additive

Last update date September 26, 2019

FAO
Abbreviation of Food and Agriculture Organization (international Food and Agriculture Organization). One of the specialized agencies affiliated with the United Nations. We make the FAO charter consisting of Article 26 by increase in production of food, improvement of farmer in standard of living, nutrition improvement of each people in the main point in 1945 and start based on that. The activity information exchange, advice of each country, specialized instruction, technical assistance. Japan joins in 1951.
WHO
Abbreviation of World Health Organization (the World Health Organization). One of the specialized agencies affiliated with the United Nations. It starts with effect of the World Health Organization charter in 1948. Organization which takes charge of the field of hygiene among business of the United Nations. Japan joins in 1951.
ADI
It is intake tolerance (Acceptable Daily Intake) all day long. Daily quantity that it is thought that there is no danger even if we continue consuming material with Homo sapiens throughout the life. Generally, it is expressed in mg/kg/day (daily intake mg quantity per 1 kg in weight). We perform chronic toxicity examination due to animal and calculate maximum no harvest dose and we multiply factor of safety (1/100-1/500) by the number and are provided. One of the relative safe evaluations such as pesticide residue or food additive. It is thought that intakes such as additives within ADI are safe.
JECFA
Abbreviation of Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (FAO/WHO combination food additive expert Committee). Substructure of FAO/WHO. JECFA becomes from specialist about additive standard in each country and toxic scholar and evaluates result of safety examination of additive carried out in each country and decides intake tolerance (ADI) on day. Meeting report is announced as WHO technical report series every year.
In addition, we can refer to ADI from homepage of Nippon Shokuhin chemical research promotion foundation.
Acute toxicity test
One of the docimasy to know toxic effect in short term when we occurred by the single dosage of chemical substance. We give one time of material to mouse, rat and usually perform observation for 1-2 weeks.
LD₅₀
It is also known as LD-50 or LD-50. Quantity of material which is estimated when 50% die of animal which we used for examination that was stopped by acute toxicity test. We use to relatively evaluate toxic strength of material. We will say that it is toxic so that value of LD₅₀ is small. It is usually expressed in mg/kg or g/kg (mg per 1 kg in weight or g).
Tofu coagulating agent
We harden soybean milk and are used when we cook tofu. Magnesium chloride.
kansui
Alkali agent creating texture, flavor, colors peculiar to Chinese noodles. Sodium carbonate.
Antifoaming agent
Of bubble that is hard to disappear to occur by process to steam of soybean milk, concentration processes such as fruit jam, distillation process, fermentation process of fermented food of distilled liquor, fried food process of tempura is used for defoaming. Silicone resin.
Extraction solvent
It is used to extract necessary food composition from food raw materials. Including hexane (is removed before completion of the last food, and do not remain behind).
Enzyme
Unlike general chemical reaction, it reacts to specific material on mild condition and, with protein produced by the living body cell, is used to produce objective materials. α - amylase.
pH regulator
We regulate pH of food in appropriate range and prevent change in quality, change of color of food and are used to improve effect of other food additive. Citric acid.
Agent for other production
It adsorbs impurities on purified filtration in food manufacturing and improves organizations such as alkali agent (sodium hydroxide), kamaboko, ham, sausage or noodles used for acid (hydrochloric acid) used for hydrolysis of filtration assistant (silicon dioxides), protein and starch which are used to perform filtration efficiently and alkaline neutralization, decortication by alkalinity and acid neutralization, and there are glaze agents which is used for surfaces of a body such as release agent (liquid paraffin), frozen fish which are used to prevent that binding agent (phosphate), baker's dough used for prevention of syneresis, freezing anamorphism prevention or prevention of sutorabaido attach to machine and grilled model because coherency makes film of strong ice of protection effect highly (xanthan gum of thickener).
Preservatives
We prevent putrefaction, deterioration by microorganism of processed food and we prevent outbreak of food poisoning and are used for preservation-related improvement of food. Sorbic acid.
Antimicrobial agent
It is used to sterilize microorganism polluting machine, appliance for food and the raw materials or food manufacturing. Including hydrogen peroxide (after having used, disintegrate and is removed).
Anti-oxidant
We prevent oxidation of oil and fat in food and are used to prevent change of color and browning such as fruit artefact or pickle. Ascorbic acid.
Mold-proof agent
It is used to prevent outbreak of mold during transportation storage of citrus fruits and banana. O-phenyl phenol.
Storable duration improver
It is used to hold down side dish, short-term putrefaction, deterioration of preservation-related low food including salad. Acetic acid.
But it is decided to display indication of food additive with processed foods by material name as storable duration improver is not the collective name.
Coloring agent
Red, blue, yellow are used to create various colors. Edible Red No. 2.
Color fixative
It is used for the purpose of acting on Hb of food, and stable pigment being produced. Sodium nitrite.
Bleaching agent
It is colorless and does unfavorable pigment ingredient and coloration material included in food which is raw materials of processed food and is used to whiten color. Sodium sulfite.
Brightener
We give the surface of food luster and are used for the purpose of protecting food including dampproofing. karunaubawakkusu.
Fragrance
It is used we give aroma to food or to be increased. There are many types.
Spice extract
We extracted the active ingredient from spice (spice) such as peppermint, pepper, cinnamon. We add to appetite and are used to raise taste.
Sweetener
It is used to give sweetness to food. Aspartame.
Acidulant
It is used for food for adjustment of grant of acidity or acidity and harmony of taste. Citric acid.
Seasoning
We give taste or saltiness to food and are increased and we do harmony and adjustment of taste again and are used for improvement and improvement of taste (except sweetener, acidulant, bitter-tasting seasoning). Monosodium glutamate.
Bitter-tasting seasoning
We give food moderate bitterness and are used to add to taste. Caffeine.
Emulsifier
We defoam emulsification, dispersion, penetration, kiawa to food and are used for the purpose of washing. Glycerine fatty acid ester.
Thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent, thicking agent
By functions such as the reinforcement of viscosity of food, stabilization or gelation of emulsifying and dispersing, we make organization which is desirable for food and are used for improvement maintenance of taste and quality. Arabian gum.
Baking powder
It is used to inflate cake, steamed bun, steamed bread plumply. Sodium bicarbonate.
Gum base
It is used as chewing base material of chewing gum. Chicle.
Nutrition potentiator
It is used to strengthen nutrition ingredients such as vitamin, mineral or amino acid. Vitamin C.

General statement edible natural pigment (ko*), food and safety (Minamiyama temple), food additive (food chemistry newspaper) of the separate volume foods chemical revised edition world, food safety-related (nutrition junior college publishing division for women) concise meal dictionary (tree village bunch) which we want to review, food additive (Mitsuo temple) in living to know well

November 10, 2005 update
February 15, 2006 update

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